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China's electricity reform go from here

Date:2016年3月2日 16:11

Electricity and network division and split

National Development and Reform Commission, former deputy director of the National Energy Bureau Zhang Guobao, former director

Electric power system reform carried out in 2002 10 years have passed.

10 years, the rapid development of power industry, the installed capacity in 2001 from 338.6 million kilowatts, increased in 2011 to 10.5 million kilowatts in 2012 will exceed 1.1 billion kilowatts, will soon overtake the United States as the world's largest installed capacity of electricity countries; six regional power grid from the grid substantially unconnected to the formation of a national network including Tibet and Hainan Island, including。 On the other hand, the success of the electric power system reform remains controversial.

In 1999 I began to any State Development Planning Commission (hereinafter "the State Planning Commission") is deputy director in charge of energy, transport, industry, high-tech industries, the responsibility lies, honor when he was Premier Zhu Rongji, Vice-Premier Wu Bangguo and State under the direct leadership of the Planning Commission Zeng Peiyan three comrades involved in electricity, civil aviation, railways, telecommunications, these four are considered to be social reform program designed to monopoly industries, as someone who, witness, I have the responsibility to record this history down.

Power generation companies:

"A split five" and the introduction of various forms of ownership

In the late 1990s, the relative civil aviation and telecommunications reform, calls on the electric power system were loud voice reform.

Past government economic management architecture, heavily influenced by the Soviet Union, set a lot of professional and industrial sectors。 As the Chinese economic reform, many of the professional sector has been revoked merged into several comprehensive management department。 After the reforms, many professional sectors is not, relatively concentrated and streamlined。 Some of these specialized departments into enterprises, these enterprises should have control of some enterprises of things, but inherits some of the functions formerly managed by government departments, power as well. Past Ministry evolved into the national power company, it is still part of the government to exercise administrative functions, but also business management functions。

In retrospect, this may be our reform process in a very significant step, but also a relatively large resistance steps. There was a saying: There are so many temple of Buddha, the Buddha light you please go to the Buddha there will be other, so we have to move the demolition of the temple after the Buddha。 Think about it, at that time involved in dozens of ministries of action, related to the number of people I do not have detailed figures, it is estimated there are at least tens of thousands, so much reform, requires a lot of courage.

After merging ministries reform, the second step is that some companies have become, but it is both institutional administrative functions for further reform, the first is electricity, civil aviation, railways and telecommunications sectors.

If these sectors is very difficult to change their own, it is necessary to design a comprehensive sector reform program. This task falls to the head of the State Planning Commission. At that time, Comrade Zeng Peiyan of the State Development Planning Commission, when his reform group leader, deputy head of me, because I was in charge of all these four sectors, Economic Restructuring and Reform comrades were several departments also participated in the reform leading group.

At that time of the electric power system reform have more consensus first, separates the functions of government from the original national power company which was spun off into government departments to go inside; the second is the mode of reform, we are more unified view is the plant network separately. Power generation companies and power grid transmission and distribution business before the reform belong to the State Power Corporation, originally belonging to the State Power Corporation power generation companies spun off, is no longer a monopoly, run by a company no longer power, but allows a number of run electricity, more ownership run electricity, the introduction of competition.

Many run electricity is actually two steps: a step is the State Power Corporation power generation companies formerly owned spin-off, but it is not a power generation business, but of the five power generation companies. 5 can compete with each other, depending on your service, according to your ability to compete in other areas. Another major step was the original power companies outside the scope of the State Power Corporation also allowed to participate in the competition, is the diverse forms of ownership are allowed to participate in the field of power generation in the past, including foreign and joint ventures, private enterprises, including the non-power sector enterprises to run electricity. Resources such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, Formosa Plastics, the coal industry Shenhua, Datong Coal Mine Group, the private GCL, Pearl River, local investment body HECIC, Jiangsu Guoxin and so do some plants. Now estimated to have more than one hundred companies on power, while the former belongs to the state power company's five power generation capacity of the company's share of the proportion of not even half, marking the diverse forms of ownership are allowed to participate in the power generation field, the formation of a multi home run competition power。

Reform of the grid into focus:

National "a network" or "more than one network"?

Electricity reform process, encountered many problems, one of the problems is how to do the power grid?

It was suggested that the grid can also introduce competition into electricity similar to the five companies, put the grid into several companies. There have been envisaged under the original 6 DG (ie, northeast, northwest, north, central, east, south), these six large power grid area into six companies.

But it was also suggested that even if you put it into six grid company, within the jurisdiction of any of it is a grid company. Northeast power grid, for example, in the Northeast, it is impossible to put the electric grid to the northeast of the South to talk to its competition, so in its scope or natural monopoly, but the natural monopoly of the whole range from Chinese into a certain area only, so some people think that this reform law not advocate the grid can not be split, the country should be "a net。"

Electricity reform encountered a lot of resistance, some of the comrades of the power sector and other sectors of the separation of generation, but also split the grid feel very distressed, it is difficult to accept. Since the founding of New China is such a system, and is now developed into a considerable size of the power industry, and now to the demolition, and my heart feel good。 But these comrades do not say anything, because public opinion think that should be carried out and separating Changwangfenkai, which is the general trend.

However, on this basis, further the "net" separate opinions resistance is big. Finally it boils down to focus the power system is: in the end the country is "a net" or "more than one network"?

Executives also have different views, have advocated "a network", also advocated "more than one network", the power to reform the specific program design phase, encountered great difficulties. State Power Corporation was changed objects, such as directly related to the separation of grid power company split, the problem is not just power companies secession, as well as grid company split is not removed, it is much more complicated than it is now thought . Reform is the trend, but you did not say that the idea is impossible, it is a fact。

Then let me go to the organization Gao Yan (when he was general manager of the State Power Corporation) talked once, he did not say it in front of my consent or showed inconsistent reform, but only a few pleasantries to push said body sick, let others talk to me. You say his heart yourself? He would not want the power to be further dismantled。 Such understanding not just a few people.

To form a consensus for change, then organize people to study abroad, learn the system power management experience of other countries, we organized a lot of workshops and seminars at home and abroad. Power can not be disassembled, became the power reform program can put a focus on the community we are also very concerned about, we made various recommendations。 There are separate claims, there are claims can not be separated, to express their views. We engaged in a lot of big seminar also invited many foreign consulting agencies and energy agencies, such as Goldman Sachs, US Cambridge Energy Research Institute have been to, some other countries also presented their experience in power management。

Most of the seminars I have attended, I see the pattern of the workshop are basically the same, say Joe Smith, then John Doe said. Now I remember, I think countries around the world the power management mode which is not exactly the same. Not to say that a pattern is recognized by the best, every country could follow the pattern is not。 Western countries, including the UK and US models the same? British model and the French model the same? Japanese model and the UK the same? They are not the same.

Was a mixed bag of views, including investment banks also have to do the work, such as Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, they seemed very knowledgeable and tell you how to how, in fact, they think it will help these companies listed, but the main thing is looking for business opportunities and economic benefits. In retrospect, some investment banks just try to figure out the intention of Chinese leaders, if the leaders believe that "a network" Well, he went "a network" that if the leaders said "more than one network" Good go out "more than network "that in fact they do not understand. Why they do not understand? Not that they do not have this knowledge, as I said earlier, the world no one power management mode is exactly the same, they can learn, and all have their own characteristics, but also have advantages and disadvantages。

General Secretary Jiang Zemin personally intervene and ask: "compromise"

Due to the very controversial issue grid, power system reform do not go, General Secretary Jiang Zemin also personally involved in electricity reform: Why has still not changed? In the end what is resistance? Where differences? Comrade Zeng Peiyan called him directly, I was on the side.

Comrade Zeng Peiyan truthfully report the design of the power reform some comments on the fact finally concentrated to "a net" or "more than one network" problem. After Jiang Zemin listened, said something in English "compromise", probably meant to throw two opinions, mutual compromise, and then co-ordination.

Why later became the State Grid and China Southern Power Grid? Since then existing from Tianshengqiao (Editor's note: Tianshengqiao Hydropower Plant, located in Xingyi City, Guizhou Province) 向广东送电, with the southwest from power transmission to Guangdong prototype。 Before electric power system reform has actually launched a series of work from West to East, on this basis, it has formed a Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong networking prototype. So the State Grid, China Southern Power Grid is subsequently formed various views, including the views of the senior leadership of harmonization results, also depending on the situation at that time China's power grid to make decisions。

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